(Benioff, Hugo) [Lehmer, Derrick] | "Machine Performs Difficult Mathematical Calculations" in Carnegie Institution of Washington News Service Bulletin Staff Edition Volume III, Nos. 1-31.
First edition, staff issue. The present volume collects three years of Carnegie Institution News Service Bulletins (1933-1935), including articles and scientific papers on a variety of subjects researched by Carnegie staff members around the world (this is the staff edition, as opposed to the press and school editions, which do not include the "Notes on Institution Affairs").
The key article in this volume is "Machine Performs Difficult Mathematical Calculations", an account of the "Congruence Machine" (now known as a Lehmer sieve) developed to determine prime numbers by University of California mathematician Derrick Norman Lehmer (1867-1938). Determining which numbers are prime is a key problem in mathematics, and Lehmer made his name in 1914 by completing the series of primes up to 10 million. The first Lehmer sieve was constructed by Lehmer and his son Derrick Henry in 1926, using bicycle chains and metal rods that closed an electrical circuit when a solution to a factorization problem was found. In 1932 they completed a more advanced device utilizing gears and light beams, which is detailed in the present article. Lehmer sieves were an important early type of mechanical calculator, and the basic concept is still used for mathematical sieves in modern software.
With the ownership inscription of renowned seismologist Hugo Benioff, known for the innovative seismographs he developed, as well as his work charting the locations of deep earthquakes in the Pacific seabed.
- Washington D. C.: Carnegie Institution, 1933-35. Tall quarto. Original green cloth, titles to upper board gilt. Illustrations throughout. Upper corner bumped, a little dampstain to tail of spine slightly affecting contents, minor rubbing at extremities, margins of contents toned. A very good copy.
(Brenner, Sydney) Trakhtenbrot, B. A. | Topics in Mathematics
First English language edition, based on the text of the second Russian edition published in 1960. From the library of Nobel Prize-winning biologist and early computing proponent Sydney Brenner, with his ownership signature to the title in red pencil, and what may be a pencilled note in his hand across a small part of the printed title. With the original receipt loosely inserted at the rear.
Sydney Brenner (1927 - ) has been a leader in the field of genetics almost from the moment he received his doctorate at Oxford in 1954. He joined Francis Crick’s laboratory in 1956, and they did groundbreaking research on how DNA is decoded by cells. Brenner proposed that the nucleotides which comprise DNA (adenine, guanine, thiamine and cytosine) are read by the cell in sets of three called codons, with each codon representing an amino acid (for example, three adenines in a row is the codon for the amino acid lysine). A gene is simply a string of codons that directs the production of a protein molecule from individual amino acids. He also correctly predicted the existence of messenger RNA, the molecule that carries the genetic code from the nucleus to the ribosomes, where the translation process occurs.
Following this work, it was Brenner’s efforts to establish a new laboratory organism for the study of genetics that led to his Nobel Prize. “Beginning in 1965, he began to lay the groundwork to make C. elegans, a small, transparent nematode, into a major model organism for genetics, neurobiology and developmental biology research. As a direct result of his original vision, this tiny worm became the first animal for which the complete cell lineage and entire neuronal wiring were known. Today, more than 1,000 investigators are studying C. elegans, and Brenner’s work was further honored when a closely related nematode was named Caenorhabditis brenneri” (Salk Institute biography).
Author Boris Avraamovich Trakhtenbrot (1923 - 2016) was a prominent Russian and Israeli computer scientist, best known for discovering and proving the Gap theorem and Trakhtenbrot’s theorem. The present volume, “gives some of the historical aspects of algorithms and goes on to outline the development of the theory of algorithms that has taken place in the twentieth century. in defining the term algorithm, the author considers the close relation between algorithms and computing machines. The reader will need no specific mathematical background beyond intermediate algebra, but he should be able to follow a rather complex train of logical thought” (blurb). This book would have been of particular interest to Brenner, who was a proponent of computing from early in his career. He taught himself the TRAC language in the 1960s and used it to write the first program to compare nucleic acid sequences. Soon he had “become so skilled at assembly language programming that I didn’t think twice about altering a Fortran compiler to use with our disc operating system... All this work became valueless when this machine — by then slow, small and obsolete — was junked... I resolved never to become so involved with computers again, but I knew they were going to be essential tools in biology... Some years ago, when I took up computing again, I decided to do better than the first time around. So I learnt the C language and wrote an interpreter for TRAC in C. I have a large suite of programs written in an even flashier TRAC language that I use to study sequences.” (Loose Ends column, Current Biology vol. 5, no 11, 1995).
...Algorithms and Automatic Computing Machines Translated and Adapted from the Second Russian Edition (1960) by Jerome Kristian, James D. McCawley, and Samuel A. Schmitt. Survey of Recent East European Mathematical Literature. A Project Conducted by Alfred L. Putnam and Izaak Wirszup.
Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, 1963.
101 page booklet, stapled. Original red and white wrappers. Small pencilled note to the title. Wrappers lightly rubbed and a little toned along the spine. An excellent copy.